### Changing ‘Constants’ Are Back

A new article from “Inside Science” suggests that ‘constants’ like the speed of light could change. It also suggests that LIGO the gravitational wave detector could be used to find change. This would add to LIGO’s victory in detecting gravitational waves from colliding black holes.
Could Fundamental Constants Be Neither Fundamental Nor Constant?

## 5 Comments:

The special theory of relativity is guaranteed to be correct according to overwhelming evidence. The general theory of relativity has many empirical successes. How could the speed of light possibly be changing? According to Fredkin, nature does not have infinities, infinitesimals, perfectly continuous variables, or local sources of randomness. I have conjectured that my basic theory (i.e. string theory with the finite nature hypothesis) is empirically valid if and only the fundamental basis of nature is an Einstein-Riofrio duality principle. Consider the following ideas: Nature is mathematically isomorphic to a finite-state machine. There are time-slices, Riofrio-time-slice-1, Riofrio-time-slice-2, ... , Riofrio-time-slice-n — and there are time-slices, Einstein-Friedman-time-slice-1, Einstein-Friedman-time-slice-2, ... , Einstein-Friedmann-time-slice-n. Both of the sequences of time slices have big bang resets according to Wolfram's cosmological automaton. Riofrio postulates that the radius of each universe in the multiverse is a constant. Einstein and Friedmann postulate that the speed of light in a vacuum is a constant for each universe in the multiverse. The Riofrio postulate with the Riofrio cosmological model and the Einstein postulate with the Friedmann cosmological model might be reconciled provided that each universe in the multiverse steadily loses gravitational energy. The mathematical reconciliation might be derivable from the assumptions that dark-matter-compensation-constant = (3.9±.5) * 10^-5 and dark matter particles do not exist, together with plausible assumptions about Wolfram's cosmological automaton. Google "wolfram fredkin".

Are you familiar with the work of nassim haramein at Hawaii inst of physics

Seems like his holographic quantum theory of Planck spheres would work well with this theory of light speed decreasing

It would further elaborate the issue of “resolution”

twitter @whoxwho

In the standard form of Einstein's field equations, replace the -1/2 by -1/2 + (3.9±.5) * 10^-5 — how is this equivalent to an Einstein-Riofrio duality principle? Let t denote the age of our universe, starting with t=0 at the Big Bang. Replace ċ(t)/c(t) in the Riofrio model by U̇(t)/U(t) in the modified Einstein-Friedmann model, where U(t) is the cosmological average of the gravitational potential in the Newtonian approximation assuming the modification of general relativity theory. With the unmodified Einsteinian field equations, U̇(t) = 0 because gravitational energy is conserved in the Newtonian approximation. With the modified Einsteinian field equations, there is a mathematical isomorphism between Einstein's viewpoint and Riofrio's viewpoint. However, 2 cutoffs need to be added to Einstein's field equations to make the isomorphism work.

Thank you for the thoguhtful comments!

Pipino, Giuseppe. "Evidences for Varying Speed of Light with Time." Journal of High Energy Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology 5, no. 2 (2019). Pipino has hypothesized a correspondence between the Riofrio cosmological model and Milgrom's MOdified Newtonian Dynamics.

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