### Changing ‘Constants’ Are Back

A new article from “Inside Science” suggests that ‘constants’ like the speed of light could change. It also suggests that LIGO the gravitational wave detector could be used to find change. This would add to LIGO’s victory in detecting gravitational waves from colliding black holes.
Could Fundamental Constants Be Neither Fundamental Nor Constant?

## 15 Comments:

The special theory of relativity is guaranteed to be correct according to overwhelming evidence. The general theory of relativity has many empirical successes. How could the speed of light possibly be changing? According to Fredkin, nature does not have infinities, infinitesimals, perfectly continuous variables, or local sources of randomness. I have conjectured that my basic theory (i.e. string theory with the finite nature hypothesis) is empirically valid if and only the fundamental basis of nature is an Einstein-Riofrio duality principle. Consider the following ideas: Nature is mathematically isomorphic to a finite-state machine. There are time-slices, Riofrio-time-slice-1, Riofrio-time-slice-2, ... , Riofrio-time-slice-n — and there are time-slices, Einstein-Friedman-time-slice-1, Einstein-Friedman-time-slice-2, ... , Einstein-Friedmann-time-slice-n. Both of the sequences of time slices have big bang resets according to Wolfram's cosmological automaton. Riofrio postulates that the radius of each universe in the multiverse is a constant. Einstein and Friedmann postulate that the speed of light in a vacuum is a constant for each universe in the multiverse. The Riofrio postulate with the Riofrio cosmological model and the Einstein postulate with the Friedmann cosmological model might be reconciled provided that each universe in the multiverse steadily loses gravitational energy. The mathematical reconciliation might be derivable from the assumptions that dark-matter-compensation-constant = (3.9±.5) * 10^-5 and dark matter particles do not exist, together with plausible assumptions about Wolfram's cosmological automaton. Google "wolfram fredkin".

Are you familiar with the work of nassim haramein at Hawaii inst of physics

Seems like his holographic quantum theory of Planck spheres would work well with this theory of light speed decreasing

It would further elaborate the issue of “resolution”

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In the standard form of Einstein's field equations, replace the -1/2 by -1/2 + (3.9±.5) * 10^-5 — how is this equivalent to an Einstein-Riofrio duality principle? Let t denote the age of our universe, starting with t=0 at the Big Bang. Replace ċ(t)/c(t) in the Riofrio model by U̇(t)/U(t) in the modified Einstein-Friedmann model, where U(t) is the cosmological average of the gravitational potential in the Newtonian approximation assuming the modification of general relativity theory. With the unmodified Einsteinian field equations, U̇(t) = 0 because gravitational energy is conserved in the Newtonian approximation. With the modified Einsteinian field equations, there is a mathematical isomorphism between Einstein's viewpoint and Riofrio's viewpoint. However, 2 cutoffs need to be added to Einstein's field equations to make the isomorphism work.

Thank you for the thoguhtful comments!

Pipino, Giuseppe. "Evidences for Varying Speed of Light with Time." Journal of High Energy Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology 5, no. 2 (2019). Pipino has hypothesized a correspondence between the Riofrio cosmological model and Milgrom's MOdified Newtonian Dynamics.

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Fernández-Rañada and Tiemblo -Ramos suggested that astronomical time might be different from atomic time.

Ranada, Antonio F., and Alfredo Tiemblo. "Parametric invariance and the Pioneer anomaly." Canadian Journal of Physics 90, no. 10 (2012): 931-937.

Einstein: The Einstein speed of light in a perfect vacuum is a constant.

(Intertial mass) * (Acceleration) = (Intensity of the gravitational field ) * (Gravitational mass)]

Riofrio: The Riofrio speed of light in a perfect vacuum decreases at approximately the rate –0.24 * 10^-10 / year.

(Inertial mass) * (Acceleration) =

(Intensity of the gravitational field + Riofrio adjustment) * (Gravitational mass).

How might the Einstein-Riofrio duality principle work?

Google “wolfram fredkin milgrom”.

The universe begins at Riofrio maximum speed of light and appears to lose gravitational energy in such a way that the Riofrio minimum speed of light is reached in approximately (81.6 ± 1.7) billion years. Assume that the Planck-length is 1.616 * 10^-35 meter.

(81.6 ± 1.7 ) * 10^9 year / Planck-time = (4.77 ± .10) * 10^61.

2π * Riofrio-radius-of-universe = (4.77 ± .10) * 10^61 * (1.616 * 10^-35 meter) =

(8.15 ± .17) * 10^10 light-year, assuming that 1 light-year = 9.461 * 10^15 meter.

I am becoming confident that the fundamental basis of nature is an Einstein-Riofrio duality principle. Motl thinks that the 2 following ideas are correct: (1) Green, Schwarz, and Witten are in the same ballpark as Schwinger, Tomonaga, and Feynman. (2) Without string mechanics, quantum fields would be incapable of warping spacetime. I am in 100% agreement with Motl on the 2 preceding ideas. However, I am in 100% disagreement with Motl on the Riofrio cosmological model. Consider the infinite nature hypothesis: If the positive integer n exists in nature, then the positive integer n+1 exists in nature. Is the infinite nature hypothesis empirically valid?

According to Witten, “String theory is the only known generalization of relativistic quantum field theory that makes sense.”

”Unravelling string theory” by Edward Witten, Nature, vol. 438, page 1085, 22/29 December 2005

Consider the following ideas:

(1) String theory predicts gravity. (2) String theory predicts nonabelian gauge symmetry. (3a) String theory with the infinite nature hypothesis predicts supersymmetry and the Riofrio cosmological model is empirically invalid. (3b) String theory with the finite nature hypothesis predicts the 64 Particles Hypothesis and the Riofrio cosmological model is empirically model. (4) String theory is the central component of a unified theory of mathematics and theoretical physics. Am I wrong? In order to justify the ideas of Riofrio and Pipino, I believe that a new of nature is needed for gravitons. Consider the following hypothesis: There exists some very small positive constant β′ such that | graviton-spin – 2 | ≥ β′ E, where E is the energy of the graviton. This bizarre law of nature justifies the Koide formula, Lestone’s theory of virtual cross sections, MOND, and the predictions of Riofrio and Pipino. What is happening is that, because string vibrations are confined to 3 copies of the Leech lattice, the open strings are distorting the quantum spin of each individual graviton.

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Dark matter controversy? XKCD might be on to something.

https://www.xkcd.com/2186/

Squirrel!

Thanks for sharing this informative post.

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