Quasars Reveal Holes in Universe
Time dilation is one of the most interesting results of Special Relativity. According to SR, distant events should appear to occur more slowly. The light curves of distant supernovae should appear to decay at a slower rate. To account for time dilation, a "stretch factor" is regularly added to calculations of supernova redshifts. If not for time dilation and the stretch factor, the evidence for an "accelerating" universe would be useless.
Astronomer Mike Hawkins from the Royal Observatory in Edinburgh has studied the light curves of 900 quasars. His surprising result is that they do not show time dilation at all. Quasars 6 billion light-years distant showed the same light signatures as those 10 billion light-years away. Though the more distant quasars showed a much higher redshift, there was no difference in their Fourier power spectra. Hawkins' paper appears in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society:
On Time Dilation in Distant Quasar Light Curves
One explanation is microlensing, the light being affected by Black Holes scattered throughout the Universe. These Black Holes would be primordial, formed shortly after the Big Bang. The total mass of these objects would be huge, possibly 70% of mass in the Universe. "This is a controversial suggestion," says Hawkins, "most physicists favour dark matter consisting of hitherto undiscovered subatomic particles rather than primordial black holes."
Particle physics is quite desperate for funding. Guessing that dark matter consists of exotic particles may mean more funding to search for such particles. Similarly physicists promote "dark energy" to fund more expensive programmes. Real astronomers have little use for such dark speculations. Physicists have invaded astronomy with their speculative energies.
Starting from R = ct and GM = tc^3, one can predict that 4.507034% of the Universe is baryonic matter. This unique prediction is confirmed by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP). One can then construct models where 23.87% of the Universe is "dark" mass in galaxies, and the other 71.62% is scattered throughout Space. By Theory, primordial Black Holes would be ubiquitious in the Universe, exactly as indicated by quasar data.