In the background is the Sheraton Waikiki, site of the "Joint Meeting of Pacific Region Particle Physics Community" last week. The top floor of the Sheraton has a spectacular view which appears in many postcards. The coral reefs surrounding the islands are a place to study sea life and even cosmology. At 2:30 every afternoon the sea turtles come close to shore near this hotel. All you need is a swimsuit to meet them.
The model is clothed in "dark energy," which is invisible but dominates the universe. Unlike baryonic matter or dark mass, it has repulsive gravity. Only the truly sophisticated elite of physicists can see it. You can infer the existence of "dark energy" from all the cosmologists fawning over it.
Scientists continue to profess the existence of "dark energy." Like the epicycles, it is needed to support their outdated ideas of physics. The researchers themselves don't believe in what they are professing. Robert Kirshner calls this an "extravagant universe." Sean Carroll calls his own ideas "preposterous." They don't offer a clue whey DE exists, or why our matter is only 4.5% of the universe.
At one time it looked like "dark energy" would take over. It might have become the standard cosmology for 1000 years, like Ptolemy's epicycles. Woe be to anyone who questioned this Concorde cosmology. Fortunately, many of us have questioned this preposterous model. Now we have a much better theory of the cosmos, which DE researchers try desperately to ignore. From a few simple principles we can figure out the speed of light and even the exact 4.507034% of baryonic matter.
Radio astronomers using the Very Large Array in New Mexico have found immense arcs around Cluster Abell 3376. These arcs have been interpreted as shockwaves from galaxy structure formation. The formation of structures is another test of cosmological theory. Rather than affirming the Concorde cosmology, large-scale structures may rule out "dark energy" entirely.