### M = R = t

"I perceive the Universe as a single equation, and it is so simple..."

--LT Barclay in STAR TREK TNG: "The Nth Degree"

Posting was light the past week, but some work got done. Today we'll return to the subject of Planck units. Max Planck started as a conservative physicist studying atomic spectra. The ultraviolet catastrophe led him to a "act of desperation," the quantum value h. Planck was also instrumental in getting a patent clerk's first papers published in 1905. If not for Planck, the world might have taken decades to hear of Einstein.

Planck noted that combinations of h, c and G led to this "universal" system of units. At the time he had no way of knowing whether h or c were constant. Some science types get lazy and say that h = c = G =1. They are not equal, or they could be used interchangeably.

We'll use Planck's units to express something more useful. A basic principle states that scale R of the Universe is its age, a timelike separation from the "Big Bang." R and t are related by factor c, the "speed of light."

R = ct

This equation (1) caused the Big Bang. As t increases, the Universe expands.

R/l_pl = ct/l_pl

Now l_pl = ct_pl, so:

R/l_pl = t/t_pl

Expressed in Planck units, equation (1) becomes:

R = t

We can simply express that size of the Universe is related to its age. This may appear more palatable to those used to thinking that c is constant.

The Universe can't expand at the same rate forever, for Mass and Gravity slow it down. We do some calculations, and c is further related to t by:

GM = tc^3

Expressing equation (2) in Planck units:

M/t = c^3/G = m_pl/t_pl

M/m_pl = t/t_pl

The Planckian expression of GM=tc^3 was also noted by bloggers Thomas Dent and Lubos Motl. Using Planck units can be misleading, because they are not all constant. Now we can state both equations (1) and (2) in a single line:

M = R = t

Repeat: This must be the simplest equation ever! It relates everything you want to know about the Universe but were afraid to ask: Mass M, size R, age t, expansion rate and how it slows with time. This shows just how powerful mathematics can be. According to STAR TREK, one line may explain an entire Universe.

Planck is not the only one who started as a conservative physicist. When these equations are worked out, the appeal is hard to deny even for the conservative. Arriving at a simple solution makes all the challenges of science worthwhile. The simplicity may someday be noticed by physicists, possibly in the 24th century. This may be an equation far ahead of its time.

## 17 Comments:

While R=t may express the size of the visible universe, it by no means applies to the greater, possibly infinite universe.

but...

If M = R = t (1)

and GM = tc^3 (2)

then substituting (1) into (2)

G = c^3 ???

No, try again. As mentioned, Planck units can be confusing.

Your blog is an interesting read, for the most part. Except for the parts I didn't read. Your education exceeds mine exponentially!

Thanks for taking the time to explain this simple equation to us again. As you say, children interested in cosmology will find it both interesting and easy to understand. And it helps us think about mass operators in particle physics, too, which are useful for deriving particle masses.

If it will be proved that Planck units are real physical quantitis,I won't surprise if you will receive Nobel Prize for this

I am not joking,it is really ingenious.

The simplicity of M=R=t seems to follow from the satisfaction of GM = tc^3 and R = ct by the Planck units themselves, as quickly verified:

m_pl = (h_bar c/G)^1/2

l_pl = (h_bar G/c^3)^1/2

t_pl = (h_bar G/c^5)^1/2

m_pl G = (h_bar cG^2/G)^1/2 = (h_bar cG)^1/2

c^3 t_pl = (h_bar c^6 G/c^5)^1/2 = (h_bar cG)^1/2

m_pl G = c^3 t_pl

c t_pl = (h_bar c^2 G/c^5)^1/2= l_pl

so the units represent the state of the universe at t_pl. Did Planck know of the space/time equation?

Thanks for the lessons and space program info.

actually, that's brilliant. Thank you. I'm going to pass that on to a couple of people.

Just for fun, here is the formula for the universe. I think the most intriquing aspect of it is that the fundamental rule is not "a single equation" as everyone wants to discover, but a set of concurrent inequalities that sometimes produce an equation.

Always not equal. Never Infinity. Sometimes equal. Sometime not False.

Please comment.

All the topics do you post here are very interesting, but you'd try with others things, maybe we can share some news ideas for improve the blog. It's just a recommendation isn't a rule. Thanks for this comment box.

I woild like to know more about this topic because looks interesting.

This is interesting enough, because sometimes i THINK our life is nothing and also the Universe, I think it's like a kind of mental travel or something like that a world based on dreams or something like that.

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"Man + Woman = 1 = Time & Space Interchange"

"Every Being Does Have Own Simultaneous Other-Half, Though 2 Hearts With Yet 1 MIND, Both Belong Together-As-Universe…" – Siri ESTANDARD

siri.estandard@yahoo.com

SO the universe is not infinite? Will not expand forever? Will retract back to a singularity once all the energy is sucked into multiple singularities then crunch back down to one single point for another big bang? Or is there a multiverse and we live in a membrane wave that can collide with another existing membrane wave thus creating extreme reactions and causing a BIG BANG. IDK you tell me.

I like your website. Thank you for great information. I will come back to your website again.

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